- Research article
- Open Access
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase encoded by a core gene of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae contributes to host cell adhesion
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 20 August 2018
- Accepted: 16 October 2018
- Published: 19 November 2018
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an important respiratory pathogen that causes great economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Although some putative virulence factors have been reported, pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the relative abundance of proteins in virulent 168 (F107) and attenuated 168L (F380) M. hyopneumoniae strains to identify virulence-associated factors by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Seven proteins were found to be ≥ 1.5-fold more abundant in 168, and protein–protein interaction network analysis revealed that all seven interact with putative virulence factors. Unexpectedly, six of these virulence-associated proteins are encoded by core rather than accessory genomic elements. The most differentially abundant of the seven, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), was successfully cloned, expressed and purified. Flow cytometry demonstrated the surface localisation of FBA, recombinant FBA (rFBA) mediated adhesion to swine tracheal epithelial cells (STEC), and anti-rFBA sera decreased adherence to STEC. Surface plasmon resonance showed that rFBA bound to fibronectin with a moderately strong KD of 469 nM. The results demonstrate that core gene expression contributes to adhesion and virulence in M. hyopneumoniae, and FBA moonlights as an important adhesin, mediating binding to host cells via fibronectin.
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, one of the most damaging respiratory diseases affecting pig farming. Despite low direct mortality, M. hyopneumoniae can lower the feed conversion efficiency and reduce the growth rate, resulting in large economic losses.
The M. hyopneumoniae pathogen colonises and destroys the epithelial surfaces of the respiratory tract , and adhesion to the respiratory epithelium is the first and most important step in infection [2, 3]. Several proteins are involved in adhesion, including P97, the first adhesin to be identified in this species, which binds to the cilia of respiratory epithelial cells via its C-terminal R1 domain . Other adhesion factors, such as P102 [5, 6], P159 , P146 , P216 , P116 , Mhp271 , Mhp683 , Mhp107  and so on have since been reported. Not only these adhesins, but also multifunctional cytosolic proteins “moonlighting” at the cell surface contribute to M. hyopneumoniae adhesion . They include the following: MHJ_0125, a glutamyl aminopeptidase that moonlights as an adhesin on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae ; MHJ_0461, a leucine aminopeptidase which binds to heparin, plasminogen and foreign DNA and functions as an accessory adhesin ; and l-lactate dehydrogenase, an immunogenic cytoplasmic protein involved in the glycolytic process but also present at the cell surface with adhesin functions . Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (MHJ_0031) has also been identified as a putative moonlighting protein because it was predicted within a putative heparin-binding region . Finally, elongation factor thermo unstable (EF-Tu), functions as an adhesin on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae by binding to multiple host proteins [19, 20]. However, despite these findings, the exact mechanisms responsible for pathogenesis and potential virulence factors in M. hyopneumoniae remain poorly understood .
Although infection by M. hyopneumoniae is highly prevalent (ranging between 38 and 100%) in almost all areas of pig production worldwide, there are discrepancies in terms of pathogenicity among isolates of M. hyopneumoniae. Comparative proteomics research, which offers a systematic analysis, can reveal novel putative virulence factors between bacterial strains in which virulence differs. For example, the available proteome map of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 served as a reference for comparative analysis of differentially virulent M. hyopneumoniae strains . A subsequent proteomic comparison of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenic strain 232 and avirulent strain J revealed 11 differentially abundant proteins . However, differences are evident among the genome sequences of M. hyopneumoniae strains. For example, the size of the genome ranges from 892 758 bp (strain 232, AE017332) to 964 503 bp (strain KM014, CP022714). Furthermore, differences are magnified after translation into proteins, due to variation in regulation and modification at both RNA and protein levels. Thus, the results obtained from comparative proteomics analyses of different sources of bacterial strains can be confusing, preventing the ability to focus on the most critical and common factors . Subjecting strains with a consistent genomic background but differences in virulence to comparative proteomics analysis is one potential solution. To this end, we obtained the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae strain 168L (F380) from continuous passage of pathogenic strain 168 (F107) in cell-free medium . Herein, we performed comparative proteomic analysis on these strains and identified a number of putative virulence-associated proteins. We demonstrate how pan-genome dynamics, linked to conserved and transposable elements, may help in the characterisation of virulence factors identified via comparative proteomics analysis. The findings highlight novel virulence-associated factors and the biological versatility of known proteins, leading to a more complete understanding of the complex physiological and infectious processes operating in M. hyopneumoniae.
All animal experiments were approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments and performed in Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (License No. SYXK (Su) 2015-0019). The experimental procedures conformed to the guidelines of Animal Regulations of the Jiangsu Province (Government Decree No. 45) in accordance with international law.
Bacterial strains and growth conditions
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 168 was isolated in Gansu Province, China, from a pig exhibiting typical characteristics of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) . This field strain was cultured in KM2 cell-free liquid medium (a modified Friis medium) containing 20% (v/v) swine serum at 37 °C, and was gradually attenuated by continuous passage to the 380th passage, yielding strain168L .
Evaluation of virulence in M. hyopneumoniae strains 168 and 168L
Nine non-immunised cross-bred (Xiaomeishan × Landrace) 50-day-old snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) piglets were raised according to the methods described by Huang et al. [27, 28]. All nine piglets used to evaluate the virulence of M. hyopneumoniae strains 168 and 168L were free of sera IgG antibody recognising classical swine fever virus (CSFV Antibody Test Kit, IDDEXX Laboratories, USA), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, USA), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, USA), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Antibody Test Kit, JBT, South Korea), and M. hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, USA). They were also free of secretory IgA antibody recognising M. hyopneumoniae , and antigen of PCV2  and M. hyopneumoniae . The piglets were divided randomly into three groups (three piglets/group) and raised in three separate rooms. The piglets were intratracheally challenged with 5 mL of a 108 colour change unit (CCU)/mL culture of strains 168 or 168L (or KM2 medium as a negative control). The piglets were observed daily for clinical signs of pneumonia, such as coughing and asthma. All animals were euthanised at 28 days after challenge, and lung lesions were scored using the rule of 28 method . A value was assigned to seven pulmonary lobes based on the average extent of mycoplasmal lesions. Each pulmonary lobe was scored for severity of mycoplasmal lesions ranging from 0 to 4 (0 = absence of lobular pneumonia; 1 = 1–25% lesions; 2 = 26–50% lesions; 3 = 51–75% lesions; 4 = 76–100% lesions). For each animal, the sum of seven pulmonary lobes ranged from 0 to 28. All data were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 20.0 software, and differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05.
Protein extraction and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE)
Cultures of strains 168 and 168L were harvested by centrifugation at 16 000 × g for 20 min at 4 °C at the late exponential phase of growth. Pellets were washed three times with 10 mM TRIS–HCl (pH 7.4) and resuspended in protein extract consisting of 1.52 g thiourea, 4.2 g urea, 0.4 g CHAPS, 200 µL amphoteric electrolyte, 61.6 mg dithiothreitol (DTT; all Bio-Rad), and protease inhibitor (Merck) dissolved in 10 mL ultrapure water. After vortexing and centrifugation, total protein in the supernatant was subjected to cleanup with a ReadyPrep 2-D cleanup kit (Bio-Rad). Purified proteins were redissolved in 350 µL rehydration solution (7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 0.001% bromophenol blue; Bio-Rad) and centrifuged to remove insoluble components. Samples were finally loaded onto a 17 cm strip (pH 3–10; Bio-Rad) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) was carried out at 20 °C by positively rehydrating at 50 V for 12 h, increasing slowly to 250 V for 1 h, rapidly to 1000 V for 1 h, 10 000 V for 3 h, rapidly to 10 000 V to a total of 90 000 Vh, then rapidly to 500 V. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was then performed according to a previous protocol .
Image analysis, MALDI-TOF–MS/MALDI-TOF-TOF–MS, and database searching
After Coomassie blue staining of the SDS-PAGE gel, the detected protein spots from each gel were matched automatically using PDQuest V8.0 software with additional visual analysis. The intensity of individual spot was normalised relative to the total valid spot intensity for each gel. Protein expression levels were calculated as the fold-change. Only spots for which the abundance in strain 168 was ≥ 1.5-fold higher than in strain 168L (Student’s t test ≥ 0.05) were excised from the 2-DE gel and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF–MS/MALDI-TOF-TOF–MS) analysis. Peptide mass fingerprinting data were analysed using the MASCOT server. Peptides with a rank of 1 in the MASCOT search were considered significant and used for the combined peptide score.
Protein–protein interaction analysis
To investigate the contribution of the identified differentially abundant proteins to the virulence of M. hyopneumoniae, we summarised the putative virulence factors reported in previously published papers [3, 21]. The STRING database was used to generate protein–protein interactions between known virulence factors and the novel differentially abundant proteins identified in this study. Only interactions with a confidence score of at least 0.4 were considered for analysis. The protein–protein interaction network was visualised using Cytoscape (3.5.1).
Core genome analysis
The gene profile (content) of a pan-genome, defined as the entire genomic repertoire of a given species, can be divided into core (shared by all genomes), dispensable, and strain-/isolate-specific genes [32, 33]. The available genomes of nine different M. hyopneumoniae strains were downloaded from the NCBI website for core genome analysis . The accession numbers are as follows: strain J, AE017243; strain 168, CP002274; strain 168L, CP003131; strain 232, AE017332; strain 7422, PRJNA47327; strain 7448, AE017244; strain 11, MWWN00000000; strain KM014, CP022714; strain TB1, Scaffold. All genome data are available from NCBI FTP. A pan-genome computation was performed using PGAP v1.2.1, which performs the analysis according to the Heaps low pan-genome models for these genomes. After the input files were built using the Converter_NCBINewFormatData.pl script within PGAP, the PGAP.pl script of PGAP was executed using the Gene Family (GF) method to build a pan-genome profile . Graphs were drawn using an in-house R script.
Preparation of polyclonal antibody recognising recombinant FBA (rFBA)
The full-length fba gene (MHP168_014) was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector by site-directed mutation and overlap extension (SOE-PCR) due to the existence of rare codons, and rFBA was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-chelating chromatography as described in a previous study . A polyclonal antibody was raised against rFBA by subcutaneously immunising 1-month-old New Zealand white rabbits. Each rabbit was immunised three times with 1 mg of rFBA emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant (Sigma, USA) at 2-week intervals. Sera were collected at 1 week after the third immunisation.
Western blot validation of comparative proteomics analysis
Equal amounts (40 μg) of each protein sample were separated on a 12% SDS-PAGE gel, and proteins were electrophoretically transferred onto polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Germany) and developed with Ponceau-S as the loading control. After blocking with TBST buffer comprising 20 mM TRIS–HCl (pH 7.6), 150 mM NaCl and 0.1% Tween-20 containing 5% skimmed milk, membranes were probed with anti-rFBA antibody (1:2000 dilution). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibody (1:10 000 dilution) was used for final identification. ImageJ software was used to calculate the optical density (OD) of the corresponding bands. The OD of FBA from different samples was normalised to that of the Ponceau-S-stained membrane. The abundance of FBA in M. hyopneumoniae strain 168L is expressed as the percentage of that in M. hyopneumoniae strain 168. Three replicates were subjected to statistical analysis by SPSS 20.0.
Detection of surface-exposed FBA by flow cytometry
To investigate whether FBA is present on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168, and to probe FBA surface content differences between 168 and 168L, flow cytometry was performed. In brief, M. hyopneumoniae strains 168 and 168L (each 1 × 108 CCU/mL) were incubated with anti-rFBA serum at a 1:100 dilution (1:100 diluted preimmune serum was used as a negative control). M. hyopneumoniae cells were then stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-IgG and the fluorescence intensity was measured using a BD Accuri C6 flow cytometer as described previously . The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of M. hyopneumoniae incubated with anti-rFBA serum is expressed as the fold-change relative to the corresponding strain incubated with preimmune serum. The assay was performed in triplicate, and data were analysed using Student’s t tests in SPSS 20.0. For all tests, p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Adherence of rFBA to swine tracheal epithelial cells (STEC)
To investigate the ability of rFBA to promote adherence to STEC, indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed. STEC were grown to confluence in 24-well plates with RPMI-1640 medium (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (Gibco, USA). After incubation with 100 μg of purified rFBA, the cells were washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and incubated with anti-rFBA antibody at a 1:1000 dilution, then with tetraethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-tagged anti-IgG (Proteintech, 1:500 dilution). Finally, cell nuclei were stained with 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Fluorescence was detected using a fluorescence microscope (Zeiss, Germany). BSA was used instead of rFBA as a negative control .
Inhibition of adherence using antibody recognising rFBA
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae cells (1 × 107 CCU/mL) were washed three times with PBS and pre-incubated with polyclonal antibody raised against rFBA or preimmune sera (1:20 dilution) at 37 °C for 30 min. Bacteria suspended in RPMI-1640 medium were added to 24-well cell plates containing confluent STEC, and plates were centrifuged at 800 × g for 10 min and incubated at 4 °C for 2 h. Bacteria counting including bacterial genome extraction and real-time PCR was performed according to a previous method [19, 37]. The assay was performed in triplicate, and data were analysed using Student’s t tests with SPSS 20.0 (p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant).
Far-Western blot analysis of rFBA with fibronectin
To explore whether M. hyopneumoniae FBA could bind to fibronectin, the Far-Western blot (Far-WB) protein–protein interaction method was performed. A 20 μg sample of rFBA was separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to a PVDF membrane . After blocking with 5% (w/v) skimmed milk, the membrane was incubated with 5 µg/mL fibronectin (Sigma), followed by incubation with rabbit anti-fibronectin antibody (Boster; 1 µg/mL) as the primary antibody, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Boster; 1:5000 dilution) as the secondary antibody. Finally, the membrane was developed with Electro-Chemi-Luminescence (ECL) substrate using a ChemiDoc XRS+ system (Bio-Rad). BSA was used instead of rFBA as a negative control, and polyclonal antibody against rFBA was used as a positive control.
Surface plasmon resonance analysis
The interaction dynamics of rFBA and fibronectin were further investigated in real time by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a BIAcore X100 Plus instrument (GE Healthcare). Fibronectin was diluted to 10 µg/mL in 10 mM sodium acetate (pH 4.0) and covalently linked to the carboxymethylated dextran matrix of a CM5 sensor chip as the ligand using an amine coupling kit (Biacore AB). Immobilisation of soluble fibronectin generated resonance units (RU) of 2868. Binding kinetics were measured with increasing concentrations (0–100 μg/mL) of the analyte (rFBA) in running buffer (HBS-EP) consisting of 10 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, and 0.05% (v/v) surfactant P20 (Biacore AB) at a flow rate of 30 μL/min for 180 s over immobilised fibronectin at 20 °C. The dissociation phase was monitored for 1000 s by allowing the buffer to flow over the chip. Association kinetics were analysed manually using Biacore X100 Control Software .
Clinical observation and lung lesion scoring
Identification of differentially abundant proteins by comparative proteomic analysis
The proteins with significant changes in abundance
Sequence coverage (%)
Molecular chaperone DnaK (DnaK)
Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu)
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (Apt)
l-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Heat shock protein (GrpE)
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA)
Network analysis of novel differentially abundant proteins and known putative virulence factors
Core genes encoding proteins are involved in M. hyopneumoniae virulence
Western blot validation of the results of comparative proteomics analysis
Flow cytometry reveals surface localisation of FBA in M. hyopneumoniae 168
Indirect immunofluorescence reveals adherence of rFBA to STEC
Confirmation of adherence by antibody inhibition assay
rFBA binds specifically to fibronectin
The pan-genome includes the core genome containing genes present in all individuals, the accessory or dispensable genome containing genes present in two or more strains, and unique genes specific to single strains . The expression of special elements encoded in the accessory genome, especially unique genomic elements carried by pathogenic strains, is generally considered to be associated with virulence . For example, Escherichia coli strains include 1200 genes in the conserved core genome, but more than 13 000 gene families in the pan-genome. This is in part due to several major virulence factors being located on transmissible genetic elements such as pathogenicity islands, bacteriophages, or plasmids, which are classed as accessory genes . Similarly, Shiga toxin, encoded by stx, is a bacteriophage element , and the adhesion and Shiga virulence factor intimin is encoded by eae, which belongs to a pathogenicity island.
Although accessory genes encode many conspicuous determinants of virulence, core genes can also confer appreciable virulence. Indeed, more and more moonlighting proteins are being recognised with roles in bacterial pathogenesis . Moonlighting proteins, exhibiting two or more biochemical functions using a single polypeptide chain , are commonly encoded by the core genome, and are often enzymatically active with cytoplasmic roles in glycolysis or other metabolic pathways. However, such proteins are often displayed on the surface of bacteria, where they perform functions unrelated to their cytoplasmic roles that may be associated with virulence, and many interact with a variety of host ligands .
In the present study, 2-DE analysis revealed that seven proteins were significantly increased in abundance in the virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain. A virulence-associated network constructed using these seven proteins and previously reported putative virulence factors showed that all seven novel differentially abundant proteins are involved in M. hyopneumoniae virulence. Since all seven are conserved enzymes, we explored a possible common pattern among these virulence-associated factors from a system and whole-genome perspective. A pan-genomics analysis with nine available M. hyopneumoniae genomes was therefore performed. Unexpectedly, six of the seven novel differentially abundant proteins are encoded by core genes, and the only protein potentially encoded by an accessory gene may not be in reality due to incomplete sequencing of strain 11. This indicates that core genes, which are often neglected, can play an important role in M. hyopneumoniae virulence.
Of the seven proteins, FBA showed the most fold change in different virulence M. hyopneumoniae strains, and this protein is a promising therapeutic and vaccine target in bacteria . FBA is a ubiquitous metabolic enzyme occupying a central position in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways . Two different classes of FBA (Class-I and -II) have been described based on amino acid sequences . Class-I FBA are usually found in higher eukaryotic organisms (animals and plants), while Class-II FBA are commonly found in bacteria, archaea and lower eukaryotes .
Despite lacking identifiable secretion signals, FBA are also localised at the bacterial cell surface, where they interact directly with host proteins and exhibit non-glycolytic functions. Remarkably, FBA has been recently reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of several pathogens. FBA is antigenic in humans, and affords significant protection against challenge with virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice . S. pneumoniae FBA is a cell wall-localised protein, and anti-rFBA antibodies can inhibit S. pneumoniae adherence to epithelial cells. Flamingo cadherin has been identified as the host receptor . FBA from Streptococcus suis, which is reasonably well conserved among S. suis strains, was verified as an immunogenic cell wall protein, suggesting it could be developed as a vaccine candidate . FBA of Neisseria meningitidis is localised both in the cytoplasm and the outer membrane, and is required for adhesion to human cells  by binding to plasminogen . In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, FBA is required for survival during the chronic phase of mouse infection . FBA has also been shown to be essential for replication and virulence in Toxoplasma gondii , and FBA from Francisella novicida is important for bacterial multiplication in macrophages, and plays a regulatory role in pathogenesis .
Our flow cytometry analysis indicates that FBA was accessible on the surface of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain, but less so on the attenuated 168L strain. Adherence of viable M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 to STEC was inhibited significantly by anti-rFBA antisera, which indicates that FBA is indispensable for adherence to STEC. These results demonstrate that M. hyopneumoniae FBA, in addition to its major cytoplasmic, biosynthetic, and metabolic roles, can translocate to the surface and moonlight as an important adhesion factor.
Colonising the epithelial surfaces of the respiratory tract is an important part of the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae. Since adherence to host tissues is an important prerequisite for colonisation and subsequent disease development for pathogenic bacteria, adhesins are of crucial importance for M. hyopneumoniae infection . Bacterial adhesion factors frequently interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, most commonly fibronectin [55, 56], an abundant glycoprotein deposited on cell surfaces . Immunohistochemical staining showed that fibronectin is freely available in the trachea and bronchioles of the porcine lung, especially along the borders of cilia , the most common site of colonisation for M. hyopneumoniae. The capacity to bind fibronectin is widespread in bacterial pathogens, and among mycoplasmas, the first fibronectin interaction was identified in M. penetrans , followed by M. pneumoniae  and M. hyopneumoniae . Many fibronectin-binding proteins have been identified, such as the microbial surface components recognising the adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) family of proteins identified in Streptococcus  and Staphylococcus . The mammalian fibronectin system is widely-used by pathogens as a virulence strategy. In our previous work, blocking fibronectin in STEC decreased M. hyopneumoniae adherence to the cell surface. Consistently, fibronectin was verified as one of the host cell receptors for M. hyopneumoniae adhesion . The dissociation constant for rFBA and fibronectin determined by SPR was KD of 468 nM, signifying a specific and moderately strong interaction that may be physiologically relevant. This is the first report of an interaction between FBA of M. hyopneumoniae and host fibronectin contributing to adherence and therefore pathogenicity.
In summary, our research indicates the importance of core genes in the virulence of M. hyopneumoniae. Specifically, FBA is abundant on the surface of virulent M. hyopneumoniae strains, where it binds strongly to host fibronectin, thereby promoting adherence to STEC. FBA can be surface translocated and may play a role in the adhesion to host cells and colonisation, thereby serving as an important candidate virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae. Thus, we can conclude that core enzymes may be important virulence determinants. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the moonlighting function of FBA in M. hyopneumoniae virulence, and the first to present evidence of the involvement of core genes in virulence in this species. Intrinsic virulence functions represent potential targets for broad-spectrum drugs, and links between intrinsic gene functions and virulence traits are clearly worthy of further study. For organisms with relatively small genomes, multi-functional proteins may be particularly useful for optimising the potential of the genome . However, only nine M. hyopneumoniae genomes are currently available, which may limit pan-genome analysis to some extent. Indeed, only partial inhibition of FBA was observed in competitive adhesion inhibition assays.
In conclusion, the core genome encoding proteins located in the cytoplasm and the cell membrane appears to be associated with virulence in M. hyopneumoniae. Much remains to be elucidated about how proteins lacking signal motifs are localised on the bacterial cell surface. The roles of core genome encoding proteins in infection and immunity in M. hyopneumoniae and other pathogenic organisms are clearly worthy of further investigation.
The combined comparative proteomics and core genomics analyses employed herein successfully identified potential virulence-associated factors in M. hyopneumoniae. Among these factors, FBA does not have a pig ortholog, making it a prime candidate for a swine pneumonia vaccine. Our comprehensive analysis revealed seven virulence-associated factors, at least six of which are encoded in the core genome of M. hyopneumoniae. The current lack of effective vaccine candidates and the global expansion of sequencing data make this a potentially powerful approach for the identification and development of effective vaccines against M. hyopneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
YY completed the study of the pathogenic mechanism of FBA and prepares the manuscript. The comparative proteomics analysis was done by ML and MQ. LH prepared the recombinant protein. YG performed the animal experiments. YW helped with the cell adhesion experiments. ZF and GS modified the manuscript. QX and WZ supervised and guided this work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We would like to thank the native English speaking scientists of Elixigen Company (Huntington Beach, California) for editing our manuscript. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Numbers 31370208, 31700158, 31400164], the Postdoctoral Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China [Grant Number 1701004A], and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China [Grant Number BK20140754].
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